Biopsychosocial correlates of discrimination in daily life: A review.

The bulk of the literature on the relationship of discrimination to health has relied on retrospective reports of perceived exposure to discrimination. Much less is known known about the real-time within-person association between discrimination and biopsychosocial processes. Intensive longitudinal methods, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and daily diary studies, are well suited for studying the dynamic nature of discriminatory experiences in daily life. This review examines research utilizing EMA and daily diaries to study discrimination within individuals in real-time and natural settings. We identified studies of discrimination related to race, sex, weight, and sexual orientation, and examined the prevalence and frequency of discrimination in daily life, the psychosocial correlates of discrimination, contextual factors related to discriminatory experiences, and moderators of the effects of discrimination. We highlight the benefits of using EMA and daily diaries in the study of discrimination and biopsychosocial processes, and provide suggestions for future work on these associations. EMA data suggest that discrimination occurs more frequently than might be clear from survey research and is associated with poor mental health in daily life. Further, discrimination may be enacted through various means (e.g., verbal expressions, behavior), by a variety of perpetrators (e.g., spouses, friends), and in various settings (e.g., in the home, in public places) in daily life. This methodology has potential to facilitate our understanding of the dynamic temporal relationship between cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to discrimination and poor health outcomes in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)