Cognitive dysfunction in individuals with cocaine use disorder: Potential moderating factors and pharmacological treatments.

It is well-documented in the literature that individuals repeatedly exposed to cocaine exhibit cognitive impairment and that cognitive dysfunction is a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes in those with cocaine use disorder (CUD). Specific deficits related to attention, episodic memory, working memory, and executive functioning are the most common deficits noted in this population. Given that cognitive impairment is a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes in those with CUD, identifying possible moderating factors contributing to and/or exacerbating cocaine-related cognitive deficits is of great importance. Some of these factors may include premorbid intellectual functioning, cocaine use patterns, polysubstance use, comorbid emotional symptoms, and sleep dysfunction. It is plausible that by identifying moderating factors impacting cognition, behavioral interventions can then be modified accordingly and/or treatment regimens can be augmented with pharmacological interventions (e.g., cognitive enhancing agents), leading to a reduction in treatment attrition and improved treatment outcomes. The currently available treatments for CUD are mainly behavioral with variable efficacy, and even though there have been great preclinical and clinical research efforts focused on medication development for CUD, there are currently no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for CUD. A description of some of the several potential moderating factors, along with some pharmacological treatments which have been shown to ameliorate, at least to some extent, cognitive dysfunction in those with CUD are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)