Measuring variations in bicultural identity across U.S. ethnic and generational groups: Development and validation of the Bicultural Identity Integration Scale—Version 2 (BIIS-2).

Bicultural Identity Integration (BII) is an individual difference construct that captures variations in the experience of biculturalism. Using multiple samples in a series of steps, we refined BII measurement and then tested the construct in a diverse sample of bicultural individuals. Specifically, we wrote new BII items based on qualitative data (n = 108), examined the quality of the new measure using subject-matter experts (n = 23) and bicultural individuals (n = 5), and then collected validation data from bicultural college students (n = 1049). We used exploratory factor analyses to select items and explore BIIS-2 structure with a random subset of the larger sample (n = 600), confirmatory factor analyses to show that the factor structure fit the data well (n = 449), and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses to demonstrate measurement invariance in two ethnic and two generational groups. Results showed that the Bicultural Identity Integration Scale—Version 2 (BIIS-2) yielded reliable and stable scores. The data also revealed interesting and important patterns of associations with theoretically relevant constructs: personality, acculturation, and psychological well-being. Additionally, structural equation models confirmed that in general, personality and acculturation variables influence individuals’ experiences with their dual cultural identities, which in turn influence adjustment, but there were interesting and important generational differences in how these variables were related. These findings lend support for the validity of BIIS-2 score interpretations; add to our understanding of the sociocultural, personality, and adjustment correlates of the bicultural experience; and have important implications for understanding the well-being of bicultural individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)